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Neil Garra
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« on: 04 Jan 10, 1406 hrs »

Kazar Fury - An Intelligence Analysis Wargame


The role of the Intelligence Battlefield Operating System is to produce Intelligence that supports  battle planning and battle execution. Kazar Fury is a game that measures the ability of the Intelligence organizations to use produced intelligence to affect battle planning & battle execution.  

-   Did they CONVINCE the Boss? (to assign a mission, to make a decision, to allocate resources, etc)

-   Was he convinced of the RIGHT things? (was the analysis correct?  Based on ground truth?)

-   How could they have done it BETTER? (how many clues were missed? how many assumptions were faulty? was analytical baggage overcome?  Were their recommendations sound?)

Success or Failure is based exclusively on the ability of the Intelligence BOS to influence the decisions of role-players portraying various Command and Staff officers.  The decisions all require current Intelligence, and the role-players do not know the answer until after they make their decision.   Points are scored, credibility increases or decreases, and the scenario is shifted based on the decision's effects.   Nothing else counts.    The unit will either win or lose  based on these decisions.

How Kazar Fury Works

Players are presented with a very detailed scenario that may be tied to a real-world situation in order to increase  its depth.   Role players portraying various military leaders  --"Guest Bosses"--  are given scenario-based decisions which they must make.  The decisions are neither trivial or based on common sense, but rather require current Intelligence.   Intelligence personnel analyze the provided information, create and present the Intelligence needed to make the decision to the Guest Boss, and recommend a course of action which the Guest Boss may or may not accept.  After the decision, the Guest Boss is told the correct answer and why it is correct.   He may then conduct a brief After Action Review with the unit.  Points are awarded to either the unit or the enemy and posted to the scoreboard.   The results of the decision are often used to alter the scenario.

Critical Elements

Exercise Director
Ensures that the game is resourced.  Ensures that preparations stay on schedule.  Establishes Game Objectives and ensures game moves toward accomplishment of these objectives.  Ensures MI Leadership stays briefed and happy.  Responsible for Harmony among the Masters.  Enforces Constructivist learning principles.    Directs the Exercise Structure.

Game Rules
 The set of rules that determines whether or not the players are winning or losing, and by how much.  Game rules are the modus operandi for the exercise.  
 Should be fun -- why not?
Detailed accumulation of information and Intelligence that provides a rich environment for Player activities.  Combines existing real-world material, modified real-world materiel, scripted reports, and limited sensor feeds where appropriate.
 In attrition-warfare maneuver-centric scenarios, the simulation IS the game, determining victory through loss of Blue or Red icons.  In Kazar Fury, the simulation exists primarily to inject relevant sensor feeds, Blue unit spot reports, and an occasional combat resolution into the message traffic.
Observer-Controllers aren't needed.   The Game provides all required control and a scoring mechanism, so OCs became teachers, coaches, mentors, focusing on improving player performance, NOT critiquing player action or affecting player
Game Master
Creates and operates the game system.  Ensures that the game rules remain viable, useful, and fair.  Adjudicates disputes concerning the game system.  Keeps game fun and interesting for the players.   Enforces Costikyan Games Parameters.
Scenario Master
Creates and leads creation of the scenario.  Ensures scenario is sufficiently detailed to challenge the players.  Leads scripting effort.  Leads effort to answer RFIs.  Ensures that additions to the scenario are consistent with the existing scenario.  VERY critical position!
Simulation Master
Ensures the simulation matches the scenario, that the data gets pumped into the player automation systems, and that the hardware architecture is and remains functional.
Mentor-Coach Master
Focuses on teaching, coaching, mentoring of Players.  Runs the final AAR with the players.

Information Cell - controls all the information that goes to the players to ensure it is consistent.  Must make the scenario appear to be boundless, just like the real world.  Adjudicates conflicts.  Coordinates and tracks long and short term decision effects.   

Guest Boss - Recruited from senior leadership on post, but may also include visiting senior leaders from the unit being trained.   Must be made clear to them that they are not being evaluated on their decision-making ability.  Recruit early!!

Theory Behind the Kazar Fury Game System

Interlocking OODA Loops - Actions of one are Observations to the other

   Combat is a series of interlocking "Boyd Cycles" each consisting of Observe, Orient, Decide, Act.   The actions of one combatant are observed by the other.  

This unit then orients to the new situation by analyzing this combat information and producing Intelligence that will influence tactical decisions related to either battle planning or battle execution.   Implementing these decisions produces an action that is in turn observed by the opposing force.

   Being able to cycle through Observe -> Orient -> Decide -> Act faster than your opponent means you are acting within his decision cycle.

   The Playing Unit Arrows show Intelligence organization's responsibility: part of Observation, all of the Orientation, and the influencing of the Decision.   The Kazar Fury player unit performs these functions.  The Game System performs all other functions, including the evaluation and applied consequences of those decisions.

The Situation-Action Structure - it, plus the OODA Loop, provide a double feedback loop for information

   We often refer to The Enemy Situation as a homogenous entity, but in reality it is comprised of a very large number of discrete parts.   The primary building block is the Situation Component, with three parts:

1. Portrayal: a number of pre-scripted reports inserted into the game at specified times in order to cue the analyst as to the upcoming event.  

2. Event: something that actually happens as a result of enemy action fore-warned in the Portrayal.

3. Consequences: The effect the Event has on the game

   Analysis of the Portrayal produces the Intelligence needed to influence the decision of the "Guest Boss".  He makes his decision, and the Consequences (Good and Bad) are injected into the scenario in order to influence other reports or events.

Situation-Action structure over many days - Starting to replicate the complexity of battle! Time is continuous.

   We portray a reality with sufficient complexity to challenge and assess the participating Intelligence organizations.  

   Note that some portrayals begin before the game (1), and some events occur after the game (2).  This is to avoid the “SitCom Effect”: where Americans have been programmed to expect the first 15 minutes of a SitCom to take the actors to the brink of extinction, and the problems are totally resolved before the 30th minute.  There are Reports OUTSIDE of a Situation Component (4) as  background noise that hopefully diverts the analysts attention and makes the exercise more life-like.  Some events have no Portrayal (3).  Shit happens!

At any one time, there is a LOT going on, and the players experience some of the mental stress that accompanies real life.

Implementation: Striker Brigade Intelligence Training

In 1999 I was assigned to the US Army Intelligence Center's Distance Learning Office with the specific mission to create Wargames that would make training more fun and interesting.  Several months later, we were informed that the Intelligence Soldiers of the First Stryker Brigade would arrive at Fort Huachuca for training.  Since I had been heavily involved in the development of this organization, I would be in charge of their Capstone Exercise.  The Stryker Brigade's Intelligence structure was heavily endowed with Human Intelligence (HUMINT) assets, and designed to deal with the kind of threats we were then facing in the Balkans, and would later face in Afghanistan and Iraq.  The available suite of simulation software was incapable of replicating a HUMINT heavy conflict, so we developed our own scenario.  Recently retired Colonel Jerry Jones created many megabytes of textual information describing the people, organizations, & events within the scenario.  I created a wargame system that linked the scenario to the unit being trained.

Kazar Fury was used for training the Intelligence organizations of the first three Stryker Brigades.  The exercise deliberately focused on specific tasks required by these organizations, and ignored other areas.  

What Kazar Fury did
¢ Train, evaluate, and score Intelligence support to battle planning and decision making.
¢ Train Collective skills and encourage collaboration.
¢ Focus on the Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation levels within Blooms Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain

What Kazar Fury did not do, but could have...
¢ Validate or evaluate the O&O concept, doctrine, or equipment mix of the unit.
¢ Develop or validate the internal TACSOPS and TTPs.
¢ Focus on individual skills.
¢ Train at the Recall and Comprehension levels in Blooms Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain

* 1_OrgFeedbackLoop.jpg (106.22 KB - downloaded 42709 times.)
* 2_InterlockOODALoops.jpg (66.66 KB - downloaded 3993 times.)
* 3_SitActionStructure.jpg (37.53 KB - downloaded 2181 times.)
* 4_SitActionManyDays.jpg (67.87 KB - downloaded 2067 times.)
« Last Edit: 09 Oct 13, 1451 hrs by Neil Garra » Logged

Neil Garra
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The S2 Company
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