Some of the terminology is dated. The basic concept is not. When you do not have enough resources to solve for everything, you need to use a system that will ensure you solve the most critical items first. This is such a system.
Requirements Based Collection
Requirements Based Collection (RBC) is not a doctrinal term, but rather the concept of ensuring that there is a specific link between the information that is needed by the commander and the intelligence that is provided by the Intelligence Battlefield Operating System.
It is also known as "Boot Lacing".
The word "Collection" is used in order to match the term "Collection Management". However, one only manages what is scarce. Traditionally, there has been relative shortage of collectors as compared to analysts, and these few collectors were "managed" to ensure they were positioned at the right time and place to glean the required information. Lately, with addition of "vacuum cleaner" collectors that continuously pull tremendous amounts of information from the enemy, coupled to a digital communication architecture that can feed this data to the analyst by the gigabyte, we have a greater need for "Analyst Management" than "Collection Management". In other words, ensure that the few analysts are properly focused to glean the required information from masses of available data. We are not proposing a new doctrinal term, because both activities require the same mental process. This is simply a paradigm shift that may be useful.
The checklist is not designed for any specific echelon. However, it is best at Brigade and Division, with some application at the Battalion and Corps staff levels.
|Receive Mission||Define Battlefield |
- Common Understanding of the Battlefield (CUB)
- Area of Interest (AI)
|Determine IRs and CCIRs.||CUB used to identify gaps in Cdr/staff knowledge. Gaps are called Information Requirements (IR), and can correspond to any BOS. Cdr prioritizes the ones he is most concerned about. These are Commander’s Critical Information Requirements (CCIR). Intel CCIR and IR cognitively focus IPB. Area of Interest (AI) geographically focuses IPB.|
|Facts & Assumptions||Describe Battlefield |
| ||Para 2 of the Intel Estimate. |
Used by S3 and other staff to assess friendly Capabilities.
| ||Describe Threat |
| ||Para 3 of the Intel Estimate.|
| ||Formulate ECOAs |
- Capabilities list
- ECOA list
- Initial Event Temp
Pass as many IPB products to subordinate units as possible NOW. If your unit has a "Post Mission Analysis Warning Order" send them out with it.
|Develop HVT list.||Para 4 of the Intel Estimate. |
S2 replicates enemy decision making process.
Prioritization based on generic friendly mission and area of operations.
What you can present depends on enemy tactical style: spectrum is from Recon Pull (US/UK/German model) thru Command Push (Soviet model).
If enemy favors Recon Pull (Auftragstaktic) mention this and stress Capabilities. His final COA choice will depend on his perception of the friendly plan (which we don’t yet have). S2 must identify what friendly action will elicit execution of an enemy capability, which other capabilities are enhanced/excluded as a result, and how the enemy might time-sequence capabilities to form COAs.
If he is likely to use Command Push (Befehlstaktic), mention this and stress COAs. His COA choice will depend on his perception of the friendly operational center of gravity (about which you can speculate at this time) and the best way he can attack it given the current situation.
|Mission Analysis||Brief Intel Estimate. |
Use IPB products as necessary to illustrate estimate.
|Present answers to as many Intel CCIR/IR as you can. Identify those that need more work.||Intel Estimate does not HAVE to be briefed in the FM 101-5 format. You may want 5C (ECOAs in order of Likelihood and Danger) first. Use whatever the Cdr prefers. Bottom Line: the S2 usually briefs FIRST to give a context for the friendly plan. Orient on this goal|
|Cdr Guidance||May refocus direction of IPB! ||Indicates which CCIR/IR are answered. |
Adds new CCIR.
|Cdr focuses staff effort in formulating COAs based on input from all staff elements + his own intuition/experience.|
| ||Refine based on unanswered Intel CCIR/IR.|| || |
|Develop COAs|| || ||S3 uses IPB products to ensure initial friendly COAs are viable and within friendly capabilities.|
|Analyze COAs |
| ||Convert unanswered CCIR to Decision Points. Ensure each supported by either a PIR or FFIR. |
Convert critical HVTs to HPTs. Ensure each supported by a PIR.
Ensure each PIR asks one question
and is Priority for a specific time interval.
Adjust event templates based on enemy response to the friendly plan.
Create enemy critical event matrix for each friendly COA.
|Each Friendly COA must be able to counter every enemy capability. |
Enemy uses Recon-Pull: Wargame all enemy capabilities against each friendly COA. Friendly actions elicit enemy responses from list of capabilities. Patterns of friendly actions (COAs) will elicit different patterns of enemy capabilities (COAs). Because executed capabilities influence or exclude execution of others, certain enemy COAs will be more likely to occur than others for each friendly COA. Each friendly COA may have a different set of enemy COAs, prioritized differently, at end of wargame for that COA.
Enemy uses Command-Push: Wargame every enemy COA against every friendly COA, ensuring all enemy capabilities are considered.
Intelligence Requirements become Priority during the time when they specifically support a DP or HPT.
Prioritize the Intelligence Effort in terms of Situation Development, Targeting, BDA, and Indications & Warning based on the nature of the PIR.
|Be prepared to refocus IPB based on new and remaining Intel CCIR/IRs.||Cdr approves PIR, FFIR and HPT lists.||Cdr’s approval is his acknowledgment that the PIR & FFIR adequately cover his CCIR, that the right targets are being sought, and that the Intelligence effort has been prioritized to solve the PIR.|
|Write OPORD |
| || ||Use PIR, IR, event template and enemy critical event matrix to develop collection plan. Collection plan is used by the Staff as the source of specified, implied and essential tasks in creating the Reconnaissance and Surveillance plan.|
|Supervise||Continue to refine IPB (Esp steps 3 & 4) based on information derived from collectors.|| ||Work with Staff to ensure the Reconnaissance & Surveillance plan is executed correctly.|
| ||Continually evaluate focus of IPB.|| ||Continually evaluate your set of ECOAs in light of your new Intelligence. Use your processed intelligence as a feedback device to validate your assumptions. |
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