Transforming Doctrine
  Doctrine currently exists as a series of Publications.  They are each written by different people, at different times.  Creation and publication is exhaustive, and dictated by available resources.  Although some publications should be derived from others, this is seldom the case as the logical sequence seldom matches the funded publication sequence.

  Our current doctrinal production system is state-of-the-art... for the year 1750.  This is not an indictment of the Intelligence Center's doctrinal division, they must work within the archaic rules and meager funding given them by the  Training & Doctrine Command.

  Here is a simple 12-step method to fix the process... simple because it is technically feasible, inexpensive to implement, builds on the strengths of the Information Age, and enables the entire Intelligence community to become involved in continuous improvement of our professional knowledge. 


1. Convert existing publications to digital text.   


2. Develop initial set of Intelligence Categories for text chunks.   Develop sub-categories as needed.   An example of a categorization system is the one used in The S2 Company File Cache.


3. Build Tool 1:  The Schredder.   This is a software tool that allows a user to highlight digital text with a unique color that represents an Intelligence Category.  The act of highlighting links that text to the category within an ODBC database (ODBC means "Other Data Base Connectivity" and is a common format that many popular data bases can read) .  A passage of text can have more than one color highlight, and can therefore belong to more than one category. 

- Different users can highlight a passage of text differently, and the database will track who highlighted what, and at what date/time. 

- Users can further assign a subcategory to the text passage, or different sub-categories to different parts of the same passage. 

- Users can insert their own comments and notes that remain linked to a specific passage. 

- Users can link external objects (diagrams, video, audio, etc) to a specific passage.   

- Users can link one categorized / subcategorized passage to another, and attach notes or objects to that link. 

- Users can see everything done by other users, but cannot change what others have done.  


4. Build Tool 2:  The Chunkmeister. 

This is the database that supports The Schredder.   It must be able to support all that was described above.  It must also be user-configurable, so that the user – particularly the advanced user – can create database tools to enhance his performance.   The advanced user must be able to create new input forms, tables, queries, output forms, macros, and scripts that all run within the security parameters of the database.  Users must be able to save these enhancements in a way that would allow other users to see them, use them, copy them and modify the copy into a new tool.  


5. Build Tool 3:  The Monastery.  

This is a web site that projects the functioning of The Schredder and The Chunkmeister across the Internet.  Users must be able to work together while geographically separated.   The work of one must be visible to all others.   The publications and The Chunkmeister reside on the same web server as The Monastery.   The Schredder is available for download at The Monastery, and is specifically designed to link into The Chunkmeister via The Monastery.    

In addition to the tools themselves, there must be a library for the storage, annotation, and dissemination of user-created tools and enhancement.  There must be a discussion area for users to chat asynchronously, for instance, via a threaded discussion forum.  Essentially, The Monastery must be more than just a way to connect the tools, it must be a community focused on the task of doctrinal production.


6. Users begin to use the above tools to parse existing manuals down into Categorical Chunks.   This is not done by a central committee or office or directorate, but rather by those members of the Intelligence Community who are interested in participating in the project.  Some will only work on a few areas in which they are interested of have expertise.  Others will be more active.  Work will be duplicated, not because users are unaware, but rather because they all have something different to add.  Or because they disagree!  All user input can be recorded and maintained indefinitely  for future reference.  Why not... text takes up very little room!

Periodically there can be forums focused on resolving conceptual differences.  The actual result of these -ie decisions rendered- will not be as important as the fact that there was a discussion, that many participated, that many views were presented, and that the entire discussion becomes a part of the database for future reference.  


7. Categorical Chunks are assigned to Specialty Communities for further refinement.   Specialty Communities are web-based communities of intelligence professionals sharing a common specialty.  The specialty may or may not directly correspond to a specific MOS, but rather reflects a logical grouping of skills and competencies.   Examples of existing informal communities are Link 33, the Ranger Association, Company Command.Com, and, of course, The S2 Company!   The formal creation and development of Specialty Communities is essential, but not a result of this initiative.   Until they appear, work is done from The Monastery.


8. Specialty Users label the chunks within their category as Theory, Doctrine, or TTP.

             a.  Theory is the body of fundamental knowledge based on the study of warfare.  It is derived from the community specializing in that field of study.   An example of Theory is the four-step Intelligence Cycle (Direct, Collect, Produce, Disseminate), a direct derivative of the Scientific Method.  Theory itself evolves slowly, advanced by the experts in that field. 

             b.  Doctrine is a subset of Theory that has been adopted by leadership, usually after some changes.  Doctrine changes at the whim of leadership, usually to reflect the US Army’s adopted style of warfighting.  An example is the doctrinal adaptation of the Intelligence Cycle that breaks “Disseminate” into “Disseminate and Present”, reflecting the importance of tailoring output to a commander’s needs.

             c.  Tactics/Techniques/Procedures (TTP) is the application of Theory or Doctrine to a situation.  TTP are created by users.   TTP derived from non-Doctrinal Theory are generally considered unacceptable; however, if they work well they often cause the doctrine to change to embrace the previously unacceptable Theory.  TTP derived from Doctrinal Theory can also become doctrine if adopted as such.  An example of this was the addition of a “Processing” step between “Collection” and “Production”, reflecting the need to modify (“process”) collected data so that the Analyst could use it to Produce Intelligence.  Eventually this found it’s way into Doctrine


9. Specialty Users refine and perfect the contents of their assigned Categories.  They conduct internal debates, and continuously present their findings to the rest of the Intelligence Community via their web site, magazine article, and presentations at public forums such as the Army Worldwide Intelligence Conference.


10. Specialty Users identify which of their Categorical Chunks are:  1) Linked to the Categorical Chunks owned by  other Specialties;  2) Could be claimed by another specialty because of functional overlap;   3)  Should be linked to another Specialty.  The collaborative tools within The Monastery facilitate this identification and resolution.   

Identifying these links and establishing a high degree of specificity is critical to the function of Intelligence on the battlefield. 


11. Specialty Users create Learning Gizmos.  These include highly detailed 3-D virtual reality collaborative worlds, video and audio clips, slide shows, pictures, drawings, job aides, lesson plans, and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) lists.  Learning Gizmos will be built by the Specialty Subject Matter Experts, using commercially available software tools.  There must NOT be a central production facility!  The Distance Learning Office becomes a Learning Gizmo Skunk Works: finding state-of-the-art creation tools, testing these tools, writing reviews, and hosting discussions and lessons learned.   Specialty Communities determine which tool is best for constructing a desired Learning Gizmo, and buys it.  Specialty Communities use the Web as a projection platform to disseminate what they create.  Their target audience consists of members of their Specialty and others who depend on their Specialty: dependence is determined by the pre-determined links between Categorical Chunks.  Each Learning Gizmo is linked to the appropriate Categorical Chunk via The Chunkmeister.  A Learning Gizmo can also be linked to THE LINK between two Categorical Chunks.  


12. Build Tool 4:  The Publisher.   The Publisher allows soldiers to construct a Personal Publication (ie that FM 34-YOU everyone always accused you of using!) by formulating a query across all specialties.  He includes those Categorical Chunks and Learning Gizmos appropriate to his needs.   The Publisher will enable him to organize the results of his query into whatever format is desired.  The Publisher facilitates the soldier inserting his own text or Learning Gizmos to further personalize the result.  The soldier has the option of uploading his entire Personal Publication – to include his added text and Learning Gizmos – to his Specialty Site or to The Monastery for others to use.  Since his Personal Publication is mostly a query, it will be rather small in size… and always up-to-date.  The Publisher must also facilitate the actual generation of the Personal Publication as a stand-alone document: extracting the contents of the Categorical Chunks and assembling them into the specified format.  The soldier has the option of saving this to disk, creating a customized CD, or printing it out.  The Publisher is a download from The Monastery.

 What we currently refer to as “Doctrinal Publications” will cease to exist.  In their place will be a series of  queries, created using The Publisher, that will essentially reassemble the ancient, legacy publication. 


 The Big Picture!

First, sort by conceptual topic.


You have Elements!

Then, sort each topic into:



Tactics Techniques Procedures


You have determined the atomic structure of each element!
Determine and record the relationships between the Theory, Doctrine, and TTP within each topic.


You are developing Atomic theory!
Now you are able to...

Intelligently refine the elements within each topic! 
Specialty Sites OWN their topics!

Track evolution of Theory to Doctrine to TTP over time!
Specialty Sites manage, control, and encourage this!

Link elements of one topic to elements of another topic to engineer Molecules!
Specialty Sites coordinate with each other to perfect useable and stable linkages!

Create queries that will replicate any past doctrinal publication, and allow rapid construction and cataloging of any imaginable manual!
Specialty Sites maintain libraries of useful queries, and award prizes to brilliant new collections!

Assemble elements into instructional material to further general understanding among soldiers with the Specialty


  Copyright 2001, The S2 Company, all rights reserved.  

A shorter version of this was published in the October, 2001 issue of the Vanguard.
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